"Social Psychology" Reading Notes (Serial 1)
Chapter 1 Social Psychology
1. What is social psychology?
Social psychology is a discussion on how people look to others, how to affect others, and how to interpret all kinds of issues
Society is composed of people and other objective, but key factors are people, social psychology, in fact, in the psychological relationship between the student and people.
1.1 Important issues in social psychology
How to exist in our minds in our minds?
Our social behavior does not only depend on the objective environment, under the objective environmental impact, every person is based on his own psychology, will make his own decision, and each person's psychology (including attitude, belief, etc.) Behavior
1.2 Important views in social psychology
1.2.1 We build social reality
Each of us has both views of others, we are in the judgment and view of others, decide to contact them; we also have views on themselves. Based on these opinions, we have got your own behavior methods, which in turn constructs social reality.
1.2.2 Our social intuitive power is powerful, but sometimes it is very dangerous
Intuition, often inadvertently affecting our judgment; people's thinking must pass two processing, one is conscious, after thinking, the other is intuition, it is unconscious. Sometimes it will give us an appropriate fear, sometimes it will make us judge himself, and the error interprets yourself.
1.2.3 Social influence shaping behavior
Social influence refers to the influence of a society to this person. This ubiquitous impact is actually shaping our cognition, attitude and behavior.
1.2.4 personal attitude and character tendency to shape behavior
Different people, the same thing will show different behaviors, which is due to different character tendencies shaped different behaviors; even if the same person, in the face of different things, there will be different behaviors, this is Because personal attitudes shaped behavior.
1.2.5 Social behavior is also biomechanical
Humanity is the product that is born and the next day, and has a ancestral genetic psychological reaction has also formed in the daytime; at the same time, even after the day reaction, it may also be responsible by a certain region of the brain. Heart is integrated.
1.2.6 Application of Social Psychology
Applying social psychology knowledge in life, explaining life, guiding life
2. Social Psychology and Related Disciplines
2.1 Social Psychology and Sociology
Sociology research is society, focusing on the development of big groups, social trends and their social reasons
Social psychology research is in society, individuals have the induction factor for some act
2.2 Social Psychology and Personality Psychology
Although both are studying individuals, personality psychology focuses on personal factors, while social psychology focuses on social situation, others' impact on individuals.
2.3 Explanation of different levels
Knowledge is integrated, dividing it into different disciplines, just succumbed to human weakness.
It seems that social psychology and other disciplines are studying different directions. In fact, they are only part of knowledge, combining them from different complementary perspectives, which is true complete knowledge.
3. Social psychology and human values
3.1 Values directly affect the way psychology
Social psychology is often concerned with the problem of social value orientation, reaction social history; secondary people who are often involved in social psychology research, itself has a certain own value, it is very likely, they represent a type Values; Finally, values are the object of social psychology research, studying his generation, and changing. For social psychology research, it does not distinguish between the correctness of the values.
3.2 Values indirectly affect the way psychology
3.2.1 Scientific subjective
The science we have recognized is not finished, it is a product that combines objective and human awareness. People always have a filter that comes with their own attitude and values. Filters.
3.2.2 Implicit Values Psychological Concepts
High self-esteem and self-defense, welfare and relief, these concepts are likely to say that the same thing, but different vocabulary actually hide the value orientation, there is an implicit value. Even if the author of the book, he also implies his values in the knowledge he describe.
3.2.3 "Yes" and "should" there is no passive
"What is this," The expression is more objective, and "this should be" with subjective judgment; science has subjective, we should listen more to the speech with inevitable prejudice, so as to consider, system Sex as possible to eliminate deviations.
4. I have long you early: social psychology is just a common sense?
I have long known, this is just a kind of thing, Zhuge Liang, after things happen, far more than how many times more than the forecast before things, and before things, relying on some signs to predict formal social psychology The task of learning.
5. Research method: How do we engage in social psychology
5.1 Hypothesis Formation and Verification
Propose verification theoretical prediction (ie, assumptions), verify, based on the results of the verification, propose more efficient and more uncomfortable theory.
5.2 Related Studies: Exploring Nature Relations
5.2.1 Related Studies:
It is usually studied in a real environment, which is more open, usually two and more influencing factors, and the result can only prove whether the factors may have an association, and cannot confirm the causal relationship because there is too much factor.
5.2.2 "Related" to "Causal"
The biggest advantage of related research is the authenticity of its experimental environment, and it can be investigated many factors that are difficult to experimentally control; the disadvantage is the ambiguity of research results, and cannot explain causal relationships.
5.2.3 Investigation and research
Random study: can be the most representative result
Does not have a representative sample: When the sample selected is subject to certain limitations, then the sample of random research is not that representative.
The order of the problem: When there is a obvious connection between the problem, the respondents of the previous question are very likely to make a answer to the previous answer, not the real answer.
Problem option: The option setting in the questionnaire is very likely to affect the choice of the survey object, causing a certain amount of option in different answer settings.
Wording: The same message can be conveyed, but it can cause a variety of different questions, which will give people a big feeling, such as "prohibiting and not allowed", the default "willing and unwillingness" will cause people Huge feeling difference
Investigators can use these means "Frame Selection" to get the results of the survey close to their expected.
5.3 Experimental study:
Control some influencing factors, create an ideal environment, observe the impact of control factors on other factors
5.3.1 Control: Control of variables
Control one or more independent variables while maintaining other variables unchanged (or randomly assigned)
5.3.2 Random Distribution: Important Balancer
Use statistics to eliminate gaps as much as possible
5.3.3 Ethical ethics of test research
5.4 Promoting from the laboratory to life